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gao ya beng de fa zhan

2012-10-23 19:21:38      點擊:

1840~1850nian ,mei guo wo xin dun fa ming beng gang he zheng qi gang dui zhi de ,zheng qi zhi jie zuo yong de huo sai beng ,biao zhi zhuo xian dai huo sai beng de xing cheng 。19shi ji shi huo sai beng fa zhan de gao chao shi qi ,dang shi yi yong yu shui ya ji deng duo zhong ji xie zhong 。ran er sui zhuo xu shui liang de ju zeng ,cong 20shi ji 20nian dai qi ,di su de 、liu liang shou dao hen da xian zhi de huo sai beng zhu jian bei gao su de li xin beng he hui zhuan beng suo dai ti 。dan shi zai gao ya xiao liu liang ling yu wang fu beng reng zhan you zhu yao di wei ,you qi shi ge mo beng 、zhu sai beng du ju you dian ,ying yong ri yi zeng duo 。xiang guan yue du :gao ya beng zhuan ye chang jia
gao ya beng shi shu song ye ti huo shi ye ti zeng ya de ji xie 。ta jiang yuan dong ji de ji xie neng huo qi ta wai bu neng liang chuan song gei ye ti ,shi ye ti neng liang zeng jia 。beng zhu yao yong lai shu song ye ti bao kuo shui 、you 、suan jian ye 、ru hua ye 、xuan ru ye he ye tai jin shu deng ,ye ke shu song ye ti 、qi ti hun he wu yi ji han xuan fu gu ti wu de ye ti 。 shui de ti sheng dui yu ren lei sheng huo he sheng chan du shi fen zhong yao 。gu dai jiu yi you ge zhong ti shui qi ju ,li ru ai ji de lian beng (gong yuan qian 17shi ji ),zhong guo de jie 槔(gong yuan qian 17shi ji )、轆轤(gong yuan qian 11shi ji )he shui che (gong yuan 1shi ji )。bi jiao zhu ming de huan you gong yuan qian san shi ji ,a ji mi de fa ming de luo xuan gan ,ke yi ping wen lian xu di jiang shui ti zhi ji mi gao chu ,qi yuan li reng wei xian dai luo gan beng suo li yong 。gong yuan qian 200nian zuo you ,gu xi la gong jiang ke te xi bi wu si fa ming de mie huo beng shi yi zhong zui yuan shi de huo sai beng ,yi ju bei dian xing huo sai beng de zhu yao yuan jian ,dan huo sai beng zhi shi zai chu xian liao zheng qi ji zhi hou cai de dao xun su fa zhan 。
hui zhuan beng de chu xian yu gong ye shang dui ye ti shu song de yao qiu ri yi duo yang hua you guan 。zao zai 1588nian jiu you liao guan yu si ye pian hua pian beng de ji zai ,yi hou lu xu chu xian liao qi ta ge zhong hui zhuan beng ,dan zhi dao 19shi ji hui zhuan beng reng cun zai xie lou da 、mo sun da he xiao lv di deng que dian 。20shi ji chu ,ren men jie jue liao zhuan zi run hua he mi feng deng wen ti ,bing cai yong gao su dian dong ji qu dong ,shi he jiao gao ya li 、zhong xiao liu liang he ge zhong zhan xing ye ti de hui zhuan beng cai de dao xun su fa zhan 。hui zhuan beng de lei xing he shi yi shu song de ye ti zhong lei zhi duo wei qi ta ge lei beng suo bu ji 。
jin guan zao zai 1754nian ,rui shi shu xue jia ou la jiu ti chu liao ye lun shi shui li ji xie de ji ben fang cheng shi ,dian ding liao li xin beng she ji de li lun ji chu ,dan zhi dao 19shi ji mo ,gao su dian dong ji de fa ming shi li xin beng huo de li xiang dong li yuan zhi hou ,ta de you yue xing cai de yi chong fen fa hui 。zai ying guo de lei nuo he de guo de pu fu lai de lei er deng xu duo xue zhe de li lun yan jiu he shi jian de ji chu shang ,li xin beng de xiao lv da da ti gao ,ta de xing neng fan wei he shi yong ling yu ye ri yi kuo da ,yi cheng wei xian dai ying yong zui guang 、chan liang zui da de beng 。beng tong chang an gong zuo yuan li fen rong ji shi beng 、dong li shi beng he qi ta lei xing beng ,ru she liu beng 、shui chui beng 、dian ci beng 、qi ti sheng ye beng 。beng chu an gong zuo yuan li fen lei wai ,huan ke an qi ta fang fa fen lei he ming ming 。li ru ,an qu dong fang fa ke fen wei dian dong beng he shui lun beng deng ;an jie gou ke fen wei dan ji beng he duo ji li xin beng ;an yong tu ke fen wei guo lu gei shui beng he ji liang beng deng ;an shu song ye ti de xing zhi ke fen wei shui beng 、you beng he ni jiang beng deng 。


li yong li xin li shu shui de xiang fa zui zao chu xian zai lie ao na duo da fen qi suo zuo de cao tu zhong 。1689nian ,fa guo wu li xue jia pa pan fa ming liao si ye pian ye lun de wo ke li xin beng 。dan geng jie jin yu xian dai li xin beng de ,ze shi 1818nian zai mei guo chu xian de ju you jing xiang zhi ye pian 、ban kai shi shuang xi ye lun he wo ke de suo wei ma sa zhu sai beng 。1851~1875nian ,dai you dao ye de duo ji li xin beng xiang ji bei fa ming ,shi de fa zhan gao yang cheng li xin beng cheng wei ke neng 。

rong ji shi beng shi yi kao gong zuo yuan jian zai beng gang nei zuo wang fu huo hui zhuan yun dong ,shi gong zuo rong ji jiao ti di zeng da he suo xiao ,yi shi xian ye ti de xi ru he pai chu 。gong zuo yuan jian zuo wang fu yun dong de rong ji shi beng cheng wei wang fu beng ,zuo hui zhuan yun dong de cheng wei hui zhuan beng 。qian zhe de xi ru he pai chu guo cheng zai tong yi beng gang nei jiao ti jin xing ,bing you xi ru fa he pai chu fa jia yi kong zhi ;hou zhe ze shi tong guo chi lun 、luo gan 、ye xing zhuan zi huo hua pian deng gong zuo yuan jian de xuan zhuan zuo yong ,po shi ye ti cong xi ru ce zhuan yi dao pai chu ce 。

rong ji shi beng zai yi ding zhuan su huo wang fu ci shu xia de liu liang shi yi ding de ,ji hu bu sui ya li er gai bian ;wang fu beng de liu liang he ya li you jiao da mai dong ,xu yao cai qu xiang ying de xiao jian mai dong cuo shi ;hui zhuan beng yi ban wu mai dong huo zhi you xiao de mai dong ;ju you zi xi neng li ,beng qi dong hou ji neng chou chu guan lu zhong de kong qi xi ru ye ti ;qi dong beng shi bi xu jiang pai chu guan lu fa men wan quan da kai ;wang fu beng shi yong yu gao ya li he xiao liu liang ;hui zhuan beng shi yong yu zhong xiao liu liang he jiao gao ya li ;wang fu beng shi yi shu song qing jie de ye ti huo qi ye hun he wu 。zong de lai shuo ,rong ji beng de xiao lv gao yu dong li shi beng 。

dong li shi beng kao kuai su xuan zhuan de ye lun dui ye ti de zuo yong li ,jiang ji xie neng chuan di gei ye ti ,shi qi dong neng he ya li neng zeng jia ,ran hou zai tong guo beng gang ,jiang da bu fen dong neng zhuan huan wei ya li neng er shi xian shu song 。dong li shi beng you cheng ye lun shi beng huo ye pian shi beng 。li xin beng shi zui chang jian de dong li shi beng 。xiang guan zhi shi :gao ya beng de zhu yao can shu

dong li shi beng zai yi ding zhuan su xia chan sheng de yang cheng you yi xian ding zhi ,yang cheng sui liu liang er gai bian ;gong zuo wen ding ,shu song lian xu ,liu liang he ya li wu mai dong ;yi ban wu zi xi neng li ,xu yao jiang beng xian guan man ye ti huo jiang guan lu chou cheng zhen kong hou cai neng kai shi gong zuo ;shi yong xing neng fan wei guang ;shi yi shu song zhan du hen xiao de qing jie ye ti ,te shu she ji de beng ke shu song ni jiang 、wu shui deng huo shui shu gu ti wu 。dong li shi beng zhu yao yong yu gei shui 、pai shui 、guan gai 、liu cheng ye ti shu song 、dian zhan xu neng 、ye ya chuan dong he chuan bo pen she tui jin deng 。

qi ta lei xing de beng shi zhi yi ling wai de fang shi chuan di neng liang de yi lei beng 。li ru she liu beng shi yi kao gao su pen she chu de gong zuo liu ti ,jiang xu yao shu song de liu ti xi ru beng nei ,bing tong guo liang zhong liu ti hun he jin xing dong liang jiao huan lai chuan di neng liang ;shui chui beng shi li yong liu dong zhong de shui bei tu ran zhi dong shi chan sheng de neng liang ,shi qi zhong de yi bu fen shui ya sheng dao yi ding gao du ;dian ci beng shi shi tong dian de ye tai jin shu zai dian ci li zuo yong xia ,chan sheng liu dong er shi xian shu song ;qi ti sheng ye beng tong guo dao guan jiang ya suo kong qi huo qi ta ya suo qi ti song zhi ye ti de zui di ceng chu ,shi zhi xing cheng jiao ye ti qing de qi ye hun he liu ti ,zai jie guan wai ye ti de ya li jiang hun he liu ti ya sheng shang lai 。
beng de xing neng can shu zhu yao you liu liang he yang cheng ,ci wai huan you zhou gong lv 、zhuan su he bi xu qi shi yu liang 。liu liang shi zhi dan wei shi jian nei tong guo beng chu kou shu chu de ye ti liang ,yi ban cai yong ti ji liu liang ;yang cheng shi dan wei zhong liang shu song ye ti cong beng ru kou zhi chu kou de neng liang zeng liang ,dui yu rong ji shi beng ,neng liang zeng liang zhu yao ti xian zai ya li neng zeng jia shang ,suo yi tong chang yi ya li zeng liang dai ti yang cheng lai biao shi 。beng de xiao lv bu shi yi ge du li xing neng can shu ,ta ke yi you bie de xing neng can shu li ru liu liang 、yang cheng he zhou gong lv an gong shi ji suan qiu de 。fan zhi ,yi zhi liu liang 、yang cheng he xiao lv ,ye ke qiu chu zhou gong lv 。

beng de ge ge xing neng can shu zhi jian cun zai zhuo yi ding de xiang hu yi lai bian hua guan xi ,ke yi tong guo dui beng jin xing shi yan ,fen bie ce de he suan chu can shu zhi ,bing hua cheng qu xian lai biao shi ,zhe xie qu xian cheng wei beng de te xing qu xian 。mei yi tai beng du you te ding de te xing qu xian ,you beng zhi zao chang ti gong 。tong chang zai gong chang gei chu de te xing qu xian shang huan biao ming tui jian shi yong de xing neng qu duan ,cheng wei gai beng de gong zuo fan wei 。

beng de shi ji gong zuo dian you beng de qu xian yu beng de zhuang zhi te xing qu xian de jiao dian lai que ding 。xuan ze he shi yong beng ,ying shi beng de gong zuo dian luo zai gong zuo fan wei nei ,yi bao zheng yun zhuan jing ji xing he an quan 。ci wai ,tong yi tai beng shu song zhan du bu tong de ye ti shi ,qi te xing qu xian ye hui gai bian 。tong chang ,beng zhi zao chang suo gei de te xing qu xian da duo shi zhi shu song qing jie leng shui shi de te xing qu xian 。dui yu dong li shi beng ,sui zhuo ye ti zhan du zeng da ,yang cheng he xiao lv jiang di ,zhou gong lv zeng da ,suo yi gong ye shang you shi jiang zhan du da de ye ti jia re shi zhan xing bian xiao ,yi ti gao shu song xiao lv 。